Endocrine System Terms to memorize

 

Endocrine

Refers to a gland that secretes hormones into the blood

Hormone

A chemical that travels through the blood and causes cells to turn various cell functions on or off

Hypothalamus

Keeps track of many body states like temperature, nutrition, blood osmolarity, etc; it also measures the levels of many hormones in the blood, like thyroid hormones, estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol.

Releasing hormones

When the level of a body hormone goes too low, the hypothalamus secretes a releasing hormone to start production of the hormone that is too low. Releasing hormones go from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.

Anterior pituitary

Contains many different groups of secretory cells, which produce hormones that can stimulate your endocrine glands.

Stimulating or trophic hormones

The hormones released from the anterior pituitary. These go in the blood to your body, telling your endocrine glands what to do.

Hypothalamo-pituitary axis

The control system for your endocrine glands, where the hypothalamus measures hormone levels and secretes a releasing hormone to the pituitary, the pituitary secretes a stimulating hormone, and the endocrine gland responds.

TRH

Thyrotropin releasing hormone. The hypothalamus secretes this when your thyroid hormones or body temperature are too low.

TSH

Thyroid stimulating hormone. The pituitary secretes this when the hypothalamus sends it a shot of TRH.

T3 and T4

The thyroid hormones. The thyroid secretes these when the pituitary sends them a shot of TSH.

Negative feedback control of the thyroid

When the hypothalamus sees T3 and T4 in the blood, it stops secreting TRH. When the pituitary sees them, it stops secreting TSH.

CRH

Corticotropin releasing hormone. The hypothalamus secretes this when your cortisol level is too low.

ACTH

Adrenal corticotrophic hormone. The pituitary secretes this when the hypothalamus sends it a shot of CRH. This hormone also causes skin color to get darker.

Cortisol, aldosterone, and testosterone

The hormones made by the adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex secretes these when the pituitary sends them a shot of ACTH.

Negative feedback control of the adrenal cortex

When the hypothalamus sees cortisol in the blood, it stops secreting CRH. When the pituitary sees cortisol, it stops secreting ACTH.

GnRH

Gonadotropin releasing hormone. The hypothalamus secretes this when your estrogen or testosterone levels are too low.

FSH and LH

Follicle stimulating hormone and Luteinizing hormone. The pituitary secretes these when the hypothalamus sends it a shot of GnRH.

Estrogen and progesterone

The female sex hormones. The ovaries secrete these when the pituitary sends them a shot of FSH and LH.

Negative feedback control of the ovaries

When the hypothalamus sees estrogen and progesterone in the blood, it stops secreting GnRH. When the pituitary sees them, it stops secreting FSH and LH.

Testosterone

The male sex hormone. The testes secrete theis when the pituitary sends them a shot of FSH and LH.

Negative feedback control of the testes

When the hypothalamus sees testosterone in the blood, it stops secreting GnRH. When the pituitary sees testosterone, it stops secreting FSH and LH.

Parathyroid glands

Four glands on the back of your thyroid. They respond to blood Calcium levels.

PTH

Parathyroid hormone. When blood calcium is low, the parathyroid glands secrete this hormone. It causes you to absorb more calcium from your diet, to release calcium from your bones, and to reabsorb calcium from your urine. PTH raises blood Calcium levels.

Vitamin D

Without vitamin D, you canít absorb calcium from your diet.

Thyrocalcitonin

When blood calcium is too high, your thyroid glands secrete this hormone. It makes your body move calcium from the blood into the bones.